Ultraschall Med 2020; 41(05): 557-559
DOI: 10.1055/a-0978-8280
Pictorial Essay

Sonographic Diagnosis of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy – Part I: Lesions of Deep Nuclear Structures – Basal Ganglia and Thalamus

Sonografische Diagnose der neonatalen hypoxämisch-ischämischen Encephalopathie – Teil I: Läsionen von Basalganglien und Thalamus
Karl-Heinz Deeg
Pediatric Clinic, Universitiy of Erlangen/Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany
› Author Affiliations


Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the most common causes of cerebral palsy and other severe neurological deficits in children. Neonatal HIE occurs in 1.5/1000 live births (Bano S et al., Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: A radiological review. J Pediatr Neurosci 2017; 12: 1–6). It is caused by inadequate blood flow and oxygen supply to the brain resulting in focal or diffuse brain injury. The pattern of brain injury depends on the severity and duration of hypoxia and degree of brain maturation. The cerebral lesions in full-term neonates (> 36 weeks of gestation) differ from those in preterm neonates (< 36 weeks of gestation). Neuroimaging modalities such as ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) help with the identification and characterization of the accurate location, extent, and severity of the brain injury.

Publication History

Received: 25 June 2019

Accepted: 17 July 2019

Publication Date:
02 September 2019 (online)

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