Preoperative Anaemia in Primary Hip and Knee ArthroplastyArticle in several languages: English | deutsch
18 September 2019 (online)
Introduction Approximately one in three patients has untreated preoperative anaemia, which in turn is associated with an increased need for transfusion of allogenic red blood cell concentrates (RBC) and complications in the context of a surgical intervention. Here, the prevalence of preoperative and postoperative anaemia as well as their effects on transfusion rate, hospital length of stay and hospital mortality in primary hip and knee arthroplasty has been analysed.
Methods From January 2012 to September 2018, 378,069 adult inpatients from 13 German hospitals were analysed on the basis of an anonymized registry. Of these, n = 10,017 patients had a hip and knee joint primary arthroplasty. The primary endpoint was the incidence of preoperative anaemia, which was analysed by the first available preoperative haemoglobin value according to the WHO definition. Secondary endpoints included in-hospital length of stay, number of patients with red blood cell concentrate transfusion, incidence of hospital-acquired anaemia, number of deceased patients, and postoperative complications.
Results The preoperative anaemia rate was 14.8% for elective knee joint arthroplasty, 22.9% for elective hip joint arthroplasty and 45.0% for duo-prosthesis implantation. Preoperative anaemia led to a significantly higher transfusion rate (knee: 8.3 vs. 1.8%; hip: 34.5 vs. 8.1%; duo-prosthesis: 42.3 vs. 17.4%), an increased red blood cell concentrate consumption (knee: 256 ± 107 vs. 29 ± 5 RBC/1000 patients; hip: 929 ± 60 vs. 190 ± 16 RBC/1000 patients; duo-prosthesis: 1411 ± 98 vs. 453 ± 42 RBC/1000 patients). Pre-operative anaemia was associated with prolonged hospital stay (12.0 [10.0; 17.0] d vs. 11.0 [9.0; 13.0] d; p < 0.001) and increased mortality (5.5% [4.6 – 6.5%] vs. 0.9% [0.7 – 1.2%]; Fisher p < 0.001) compared to non-anaemic patients. In patients aged 80 years and older, the incidence of preoperative anaemia and thus the transfusion rate was almost twice as high as in patients under 80 years of age.
Summary Preoperative anaemia is common in knee and hip primary arthroplasty and was associated with a relevant increase in red blood cell concentrate consumption. In the context of patient blood management, a relevant potential arises, especially in elective orthopaedic surgery, to better prepare elective patients, to avoid unnecessary transfusions and thus to conserve the valuable resource blood.
* Shared first authorship/geteilte Erstautorschaft
** Shared last authorship/geteilte Letztautorschaft
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