Phys Med Rehab Kuror 2019; 29(03): 165-175
DOI: 10.1055/a-0882-1167
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© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Rehabilitation nach Polytrauma

Rehabilitation after Multiple Trauma
Stefan Simmel
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Publication History

Publication Date:
19 June 2019 (online)

Die Rehabilitation nach schweren Unfällen ist von der „normalen“ orthopädischen Rehabilitation nach elektiven Eingriffen abzugrenzen. Die Herausforderungen dabei erfordern spezielle Prozesse, Infrastrukturen sowie ineinander übergehende und aufeinander abgestimmte Rehabilitationsphasen. Zwischen der Entlassung aus der Akutklinik und dem Beginn der postakuten Rehabilitation klafft häufig ein „Reha-Loch“, das es zu schließen gilt.

Abstract

Many polytrauma patients report significant long-term impairments to their physical and mental health, resulting in a reduction of their quality of life. In addition to the obvious physical accident sequences, psychological influences and the individual context factors pose special challenges to the rehabilitation team and the infrastructure of the facility. Professional reintegration and chronic pain are particularly common problems in the trauma rehabilitation. The central task of rehabilitation after accidents is the restoration or substantial improvement of the functional health and thus the reintegration into the social and professional environment. The overall rehabilitation goal is based on the biopsychosocial ICF model: the patient should achieve the best possible quality of life despite his functional impairments, and the workability and functional capability are to be restored as well as possible. This goal can only be reached after a lengthy process, in the course of which differentiated measures must be coordinated. This is the task of experienced doctors, therapists and rehabilitation managers, who accompany the patient permanently. The rehabilitation after serious accidents is to be distinguished from the “normal” orthopedic rehabilitation after elective interventions. The challenges of traumatic rehabilitation require special processes, infrastructures, as well as interrelated and coordinated rehabilitation phases. The three-phase model described in the “Weißbuch Schwerverletztenversorgung der DGU” has to be differentiated. Between the discharge from the acute care clinic and the beginning of the post-acute rehabilitation, a “rehabilitation hole” frequently occurs. The early rehabilitation, by definition, a part of the acute treatment, cannot adequately close this hole. A 6-phase model is proposed. Phase C of post-acute rehabilitation places particular demands on the rehabilitation facility. The further rehabilitation (phase E) provides specific measures, such as pain rehabilitation or activity-oriented procedures. A long-term follow-up of formerly seriously injured patients is necessary (phase F). An integration of trauma rehabilitation centers into the existing trauma network remains the long-term goal to improve the outcome after polytrauma.