First-line endoscopic treatment with over-the-scope clips in patients with either upper or lower gastrointestinal bleeding: a multicenter study
submitted 12 June 2018
accepted after revision 06 August 2018
07 November 2018 (online)
Background and study aims Endoscopic treatment is the mainstay approach for gastrointestinal bleeding, in either upper (UGIB) or lower (LGIB) tract. The over-the-scope clip (OTSC) may overcome limitations of standard clips or thermocoagulation in high-risk bleeding lesions. We evaluate the main clinically relevant outcomes following endoscopic hemostasis with OTSC in high-risk lesions and/or patients.
Patients and methods This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected databases including all patients with UGIB and LGIB who underwent OTCS placement as first-line treatment in eleven tertiary endoscopic referral centers. Technical success, primary hemostasis, rebleeding, blood transfusion, hospital stay, and hemorrhage-related mortality rates were evaluated.
Results Data from 286 patients, with either UGIB (N = 214) or LGIB (N = 72) were available. Overall, 112 patients (39.2 %) were receiving antithrombotic therapy. Technical success and primary hemostasis rates were 97.9 % and 96.4 %, respectively. Early rebleeding occurred in 4.4 %, more frequently in those on antithrombotic therapy, and no late rebleeding was observed. Following a successful primary haemostasis, only 5.2 % patients needed blood transfusions, and the median hospital stay was 4 days (range: 3 – 11). Eighteen patients with either technical failure (N = 6) or rebleeding (N = 12) underwent radiological or surgical approaches. Overall, bleeding-related deaths occurred in 5 (1.7 %) patients, including 3 patients with technical procedural failure, and 2 in the rebleeding group.
Conclusions Data from our large, multicenter study show that OTSC placement is an effective first-line treatment for hemostasis in high-risk patients and/or lesions both in upper and lower gastrointestinal tract.
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