Int J Sports Med 2018; 39(14): 1063-1067
DOI: 10.1055/a-0671-2170
Orthopedics & Biomechanics
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York

Biceps Tendon Changes in Youth Softball Pitchers Following an Acute Bout of Pitching

Jeff W. Barfield
1   School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, United States
Hillary A. Plummer
2   Andrews Institute for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Gulf Breeze, United States
Adam W. Anz
2   Andrews Institute for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Gulf Breeze, United States
James R. Andrews
2   Andrews Institute for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Gulf Breeze, United States
Gretchen D. Oliver
1   School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, United States
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

accepted 27 July 2018

Publication Date:
16 October 2018 (online)


Because pitch counts do not exist for softball, pitchers may throw between 1200 and 1500 pitches over 3-day tournaments. With this workload, a common symptom among softball pitchers is anterior shoulder pain. The purpose of this study was to examine long-head biceps tendon (LHBT) changes in youth softball pitchers following an acute bout of pitching. Nineteen softball pitchers (11.89±1.2 years; 158.23±9.71 cm; 61.59±14.76 kg) participated. Images of the LHBT were obtained prior to and immediately following a simulated game protocol. Repeated-measures MANOVA was used to determine if there was a difference in LHBT size before and after the simulated game protocol. There were significant increases in both transverse thickness (t 18=–2.76, p=0.013, 95% confidence interval=–0.050 to –0.007) and longitudinal thickness (t 18=–2.64, p=0.016, 95% confidence interval=–0.060 to –0.007) of the LHBT following an acute bout of pitching. Longitudinal and transverse thickness of the biceps tendon significantly increases following an acute bout of softball throwing. These changes may indicate an inflammation response of the biceps tendon and the biceps pulley.

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