Citrus aurantifolia leaf essential oil was extracted via hydrodistillation, chemical composition of the oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and its antidiabetic potentials was assessed in alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats using metformin as the reference drug for comparison. Chemical analysis showed that D-limonene (57.84%) was the major constituent of the oil. Other notable compounds identified were neral (7.81%), linalool (4.75%), sulcatone (3.48%) and isogeraniol (3.48%). Intraperitoneal administration of C. aurantifolia oil (100 mg/Kg b.wt.) to hyperglycaemic rats for 14 days caused significant reduction in fasting blood and hepatic glucose, whereas hepatic concentration of glycogen was significantly increased. Also, improvement in dyslipidaemia was observed in C. aurantifolia essential oil-treated hyperglycaemic rats; serum concentration of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly reduced and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was increased, resulting in decreased predisposition of rats to cardiac risks. Antihyperglycaemic potential of administration of the oil was lower but compared favourably with the oral antihyperglycaemic agent used as reference antidiabetic drug. Overall, data from this study showed that essential oil from the leaf of C. aurantifolia grown in North-Central Nigeria is a D-limonene chemotype. The oil showed considerable glucose lowering effect as well as the potential to ameliorate hyperglycaemia-induced dyslipidaemic complications in alloxanized rats.
Antidiabetic drugs - Diabetes - Dyslipidaemia - Hyperglycaemia - Lipid lowering drugs