Recognition accuracy of tumor extent using a prototype 3D endoscope for superficial gastric tumor: an ex vivo crossover study
submitted 19 August 2017
accepted after revision 03 January 2018
25 May 2018 (online)
Background and study aims Many studies have shown the utility of rigid three-dimensional (3 D) endoscopes in surgery, but few have reported the utility of flexible 3 D endoscopes. This ex vivo study was intended to investigate whether a newly developed 3 D endoscope (GIF-Y0083; Olympus) improves diagnostic accuracy for superficial gastric tumor.
Methods Twelve observers comprising experts, trainees, and novices (4 each) evaluated 2 D and 3 D images of 20 specimens resected by gastric ESD. Evaluation items were diagnostic accuracy of tumor extent and degree of confidence in assessing (a) tumor extent, (b) morphology, and (c) comprehensive recognition. The 2 D and 3 D endoscopy data were compared in a crossover analysis.
Results Overall, diagnostic accuracy was significantly higher with 3 D images (88.1 %) than with 2 D images (84.2 %) (P < 0.01). Comparison by skill level showed that 3 D images significantly improved diagnostic accuracy among novices but not among experts or trainees. Comparison by morphology showed that diagnostic accuracy did not differ significantly for type IIa/IIb lesions but improved significantly for type IIc lesions among trainees and novices. Overall, 3 D images significantly increased the degree of confidence in the assessment of all three items (a – c). Comparison by skill level showed similar results, and comparison by morphology showed that regardless of skill level, the degree of confidence in assessing all items (a – c) increased significantly only when examining type IIc lesions.
Conclusion Compared with 2 D images, 3 D images significantly improved both diagnostic accuracy of tumor extent and degree of confidence for diagnosing superficial gastric tumor. The utility of the 3 D endoscope was apparent among trainees and novices and for the diagnosis of type IIc lesions.
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