Interaction of homeopathic potencies with the water soluble solvatochromic dye bis-dimethylaminofuchsone. Part 1: pH studies
11 July 2016
revised 06 December 2016
accepted 06 January 2017
20 December 2017 (online)
Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated the potential of solvatochromic dyes for investigating the physical chemistry of homeopathic potencies.
Results: Following examination of this class of dyes in organic solvents, results obtained using the positively solvatochromic dye Bis-dimethylaminofuchsone (BDF) in aqueous solution are now reported. Spectral changes observed with this dye in the presence of potencies are both substantial and reproducible. Studies across a wide range of pH values reveal an unusual pH dependence for the dye's interaction with homeopathic potencies. Results indicate potency enhances dye protonation at pH values below c. 7.0, whilst protecting the dye from attack by hydroxyl ions above c. pH 7.5.
Conclusion: A possible explanation for these observations is offered in terms of a potency – induced electron density shift in BDF. The interaction of homeopathic potencies with solvatochromic dyes, particularly BDF, points towards a possible physico-chemical model for the nature of potencies, how they may be interacting with this class of dyes, and moreover how their biological effects may be mediated.
- 1 Cartwright S.J. Solvatochromic dyes detect the presence of homeopathic potencies. Homeopathy 2016; 105: 55-65.
- 2 Reichardt C., Welton T. Solvent effects on the absorption spectra of organic compounds. 4th edn Solvents and solvent effects in organic chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH; 2011: 359-424.
- 3 Adam F.C., Simpson W.T. Electronic spectrum of 4, 4′-bis-dimethylaminofuchsone and related triphenylmethane dyes. J Mol Spectrosc 1959; 3: 363-380.
- 4 Feichtmayr F. Untersuchungen über den “Farbstoffzustand” im System Farbstoff/Faser und seine Auswir- kungen auf Eigenschaften. Lenzinger Berichte 1974; 36: 229-238.
- 5 Gotor R., Costero A.M., Gil S. et al. Selective and sensitive chromogenic detection of cyanide and HCN in solution and in gas phase. Chem Commun 2013; 49: 5669-5671.
- 6 Zollinger H. Color chemistry: synthesis, properties and applications of organic dyes and pigments. 2nd edn Weinheim VCH; 1991: 78.
- 7 Fischer-Cripps A.C. The chemistry companion. CRC Press; 2012.
- 8 Sabnis R.W. Handbook of acid-base indicators. CRC Press; 2007: 105-260.
- 9 Jensen W.B. The Lewis acid-base concepts: an overview. New York: Wiley; 1980.
- 10 Belon P., Cumps J., Ennis M. et al. Histamine dilutions modulate basophil activation. Inflamm Res 2004; 53: 181-188.
- 11 Davenas E., Beauvais F., Amara J. et al. Human basophil degranulation triggered by very dilute antiserum against IgE. Nature 1988; 333 6176 816-818.
- 12 Malarczyk E., Jarosz-Wilkolazka A., Kochmanska Rdest. Effect of low doses of guaiacol and ethanol on enzymatic activity of fungal cultures. Nonlinearity Biol Toxicol Med 2003; 1: 167-178.
- 13 Jager T., Scherr C., Simon M. et al. Effects of homeopathic arsenicum album, nosode, and gibberelic acid preparations on the growth rate of arsenic-impaired duckweed (Lemna gibba L.). TheScientificWorldJournal 2010; 10: 2112-2129.
- 14 Elia V., Elia L., Marchettini N. et al. Physico-chemical properties of aqueous extremely diluted solutions in relation to ageing. J Therm Anal Calorim 2008; 93: 1003-1011.
- 15 Betti L., Elia V., Napoli E. et al. Biological effects and physico-chemical properties of extremely diluted aqueous solutions as a function of aging-time. Front Life Sci 2011; 5: 117-126.