Homeopathy 2015; 104(02): 69-82
DOI: 10.1016/j.homp.2015.02.007
Copyright © The Faculty of Homeopathy 2015

Hormesis: principles and applications

Edward J. Calabrese
Further Information

Publication History

Received22 August 2014
revised19 November 2014

accepted04 February 2015

Publication Date:
19 December 2017 (online)

Hormesis has emerged as a central concept in biological and biomedical sciences with significant implications for clinical medicine and environmental risk assessment. This paper assesses the historical foundations of the dose–response including the threshold, linear and hormetic models, the occurrence and frequency of the hormetic dose response in the pharmacological and toxicological literature, its quantitative and temporal features, and underlying mechanistic bases. Based upon this integrative foundation the application of hormesis to the process of risk assessment for non-carcinogens and carcinogens is explored.