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Pyridinium-N-phenolates as molecular probes of serially diluted and agitated solutions: preliminary results
24 January 2018 (online)
A systematic approach to the design of a simple, chemical system for investigating the fundamental nature of homeopathic medicines has led to an experimental protocol for the use of solvatochromic pyridinium-N-phenolate dyes as molecular probes of serially diluted and agitated solutions.
Preliminary results using this molecular probe technology indicate that homeopathic potencies affect the degree of self-association between zwitterionic dye molecules and between dye molecules and a range of cations in solution under non-equilibrium conditions. Reactions have been monitored by following the loss of the characteristic charge transfer band of a representative dye ET30 at 600nm in ethanol using standard quartz or polystyrene cuvettes. The effect of homeopathic potencies is seen with quartz cuvettes, whereas no difference is seen between controls and samples in polystyrene cuvettes. Results are interpreted as indicating
1. A greater level of dynamic ordering occurs in solution in the presence of potencies, favouring both dye-dye and dye-cation interactions.
2. Quartz appears to be essential in propagating and/or amplifying the homeopathic signal- and hence the effects described- whereas polystyrene lacks this ability.
3. High levels of bulk water are not essential for the observed action of potencies. Assays are carried out in ethanol with only low (<0.1%) levels of water. In the assays reported therefore either ethanol is able to substitute for water in any long-range potency induced solvent ordering or the primary focus of ordering lies with quartz itself.
The implications of these results, together with future directions for research in this field, are discussed.