Homeopathic prescribing for chronic and acute periodontal conditions in 3 dental practices in the UK
Received14 May 2012
revised27 January 2013
accepted26 June 2013
18 December 2017 (online)
Introduction: This investigation extends our previous dental data collection pilot study with the following main aims: to gain insight into the periodontal complaints that dentists in the UK treat using individualised homeopathic prescription; to record patient-assessed change in severity of treated complaint (acute or chronic); to determine periodontal pocket depth (PPD).
Materials and methods: Three dentists recorded data systematically at 249 homeopathic appointments in 51 patients over a period of 18 months. A spreadsheet enabled the data collection of the following records: date of appointment; anonymised patient identity; main periodontal problem treated; whether the condition was acute or chronic; patient-assessed clinical outcome on a 7-point Likert scale, ranging from −3 to +3, to compare the first and any subsequent appointments; whether any interventional dental surgery (IDS) had been carried out; clinician-assessed PPD measurements.
Results: At least one follow-up (FU) appointment was reported for each of 46 patients (22 chronic [6 with IDS, 16 without IDS]; 24 acute [10 with IDS, 14 without IDS]). In chronic cases, strongly positive outcomes (score of +2 or +3) were reported by 2 (33.3%) of 6 IDS patients and by 1 (6.3%) of 16 non-IDS patients. In acute cases, strongly positive outcomes were reported by 7 (70%) of 10 IDS patients and by 8 (57.2%) of 14 non-IDS patients (no statistically significant difference between sub-groups). The FU conditions most frequently treated with homeopathy were chronic periodontitis (19 patients) and acute periodontal abscess (11 patients). Analysis of PPD data was not feasible due to the small numbers of patients involved.
Conclusion: Limited insight has been gained into the periodontal complaints treated by homeopathy in the UK. Due to small sample size and equivocal results, the interpretation of the patient-reported outcomes data is unclear. Positive findings obtained in the acute treatment setting suggest that this may be a promising area for research in periodontal homeopathy.
- 1 Cionca N., Giannopoulou C., Ugolotti G., Mombelli A. Amoxicillin and metronidazole as an adjunct to full-mouth scaling and rootplaning of chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol 2009; 80: 364-371.
- 2 Cortelli J.R., Aquino D.R., Cortelli S.C., Carvalho-Filho J., Roman-Torres C.V., Costa F.O. A double-blind randomized clinical trial of subgingival minocycline for chronic periodontitis. J Oral Sci 2008; 50: 259-265.
- 3 Cosyn J., Sabzevar M.M. A systematic review on the effects of subgingival chlorhexidine gel administration in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol 2005; 76: 1805-1813.
- 4 Cosyn J., Wyn I. A systematic review of the effects of the chlorhexidene chip when used as an adjunct to scaling and root planning in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol 2006; 77: 257-264.
- 5 Jenzsch A., Eick S., Rassoul F., Purschwitz R., Jentsch H. Nutritional intervention in patients with periodontal disease: clinical, immunological and microbiological variables during 12 months. Br J Nutr 2009; 101: 879-885.
- 6 Lecio G., Shaddox L.M., Diniz Carvalho M. et al. Subgingival triclosan-polydimethylsiloxane gel as an adjunct to scaling and root planing. Am J Dent 2008; 21: 171-174.
- 7 Sallum A.W., Vasconcelos Alves R., Teixeira Damis L.F., Roesler Bertolini P.F., Nociti Junior F.H., Sallum E.A. Tetracycline gel as an adjunct to surgical root debridement. Am J Dent 2008; 21: 168-170.
- 8 Pantlin L. Is there a role for antibiotics in periodontal treatment?. Dent Update 2008; 35: 493-496.
- 9 Preshaw P.M. Systemic antibiotics in the management of chronic periodontitis. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent 2004; 12: 63-69.
- 10 Ribeiro Edel P., Bittencourt S., Zanin I.C. et al. Full-mouth ultrasonic debridement associated with amoxicillin and metronidazole in the treatment of severe chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol 2009; 80: 1254-1264.
- 11 Fox C. Evidence summary: does routine scaling have any beneficial effects, or is it a waste of time?. Br Dent J 2010; 208: 477-478.
- 12 Faculty of Homeopathy. Research: the evidence base. www.facultyofhomeopathy.org/research [accessed 20.01.12].
- 13 British Society of Periodontology. Parameters of care: referral policy and parameters of care; periodontology in general dental practice in the UK – a policy statement www.bsperio.org.uk [accessed 28.07.11].
- 14 Boyd H. Introduction to homeopathic medicine. 2nd edn 1989. Chptr.1: Beaconsfield UK.
- 15 Varley P. What do homeopathic dentists do?. Homeopathy 2007; 96: 72-73.
- 16 Mathie R.T., Farrer S. Outcomes from homeopathic prescribing in dental practice: a prospective, research-targeted, pilot study. Homeopathy 2007; 96: 74-81.
- 17 Semlali A., Chakir J., Goulet J.P., Chmielewski W., Rouabhia M. Whole cigarette smoke promotes human gingival epithelial cell apoptosis and inhibits cell repair processes. J Periodontal Res 2011, Apr 25; 10.1111/j.1600-0765.2011.01370.x [Epub ahead of print].
- 18 Lewis J.M., Morgan M.V., Wright C. The validity of the CPITN scoring and presentation method for measuring periodontal conditions. J Clin Periodontol 1994; 21: 1-6.
- 19 Stoner J.A., Payne J.B. Interpretation of treatment effects in periodontal research: a note on the number needed to treat. J Can Dent Assoc 2008; 74: 435-437.
- 20 Stensballe L.G., Simonsen J., Jensen S.M., Bønnelykke K., Bisgaard H. Use of antibiotics during pregnancy increases the risk of asthma in early childhood. J Pediatr 2012 Nov 6 [Epub ahead of print].
- 21 Türkoğlu O., Berdeli A., Emingil G., Atilla G. A novel p.S34N mutation of CAMP gene in patients with periodontal disease. Arch Oral Biol 2011; 56: 573-579.
- 22 Pietropaoli D., Tatone C., D'Alessandro A.M., Monaco A. Possible involvement of advanced glycation end products in periodontal diseases. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2010; 23: 683-691.
- 23 Žilinskas J., Žekonis J., Žekonis G. et al. Inhibition of peripheral blood neutrophil oxidative burst in periodontitis patients with a homeopathic medication Traumeel S . Med Sci Monit 2011; 17: CR284-CR291.