Homeopathy 2012; 101(02): 92-98
DOI: 10.1016/j.homp.2012.02.003
Original Paper
Copyright © The Faculty of Homeopathy 2012

Effects of Calendula officinalis on human gingival fibroblasts

Pragtipal Saini
1  Department of Periodontics, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 1121 West Michigan Street, DS 423, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
,
Nouf Al-Shibani
2  Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 1121 West Michigan Street, DS 271, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
,
Jun Sun
2  Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 1121 West Michigan Street, DS 271, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
,
Weiping Zhang
2  Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 1121 West Michigan Street, DS 271, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
,
Fengyu Song
2  Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 1121 West Michigan Street, DS 271, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
,
Karen S. Gregson
2  Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 1121 West Michigan Street, DS 271, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
,
L. Jack Windsor
2  Department of Oral Biology, Indiana University School of Dentistry, 1121 West Michigan Street, DS 271, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
› Author Affiliations

Subject Editor:
Further Information

Publication History

Received14 May 2010
revised10 January 2012

accepted06 February 2012

Publication Date:
29 December 2017 (online)

Background: Calendula officinalis is commonly called the marigold. It is a staple topical remedy in homeopathic medicine. It is rich in quercetin, carotenoids, lutein, lycopene, rutin, ubiquinone, xanthophylls, and other anti-oxidants. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Quercetin, one of the active components in Calendula, has been shown to inhibit recombinant human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and decrease the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL), IL-6 and IL-8 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore-stimulated human mast cells.

Objectives: To examine the effects of Calendula on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) mediated collagen degradation and MMP activity.

Material and methods: Lactate dehydrogenate assays were performed to determine the non-toxic concentrations of Calendula, doxycycline and quercetin. Cell-mediated collagen degradation assays were performed to examine the inhibitory effect on cell-mediated collagen degradation. Gelatin zymography was performed to examine their effects on MMP-2 activity. The experiments were repeated three times and ANOVA used for statistical analyses.

Results: Calendula at 2–3% completely inhibited the MMP-2 activity in the zymograms. Doxycycline inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation at 0.005, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.05%, and MMP-2 activity completely at 0.05%. Quercetin inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation at 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02%, and MMP-2 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Calendula inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity more than the same correlated concentration of pure quercetin.

Conclusion: Calendula inhibits HGF-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity more than the corresponding concentration of quercetin. This may be attributed to additional components in Calendula other than quercetin.