A nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy comparison of 3C trituration derived and 4C trituration derived remedies
Received07 December 2007
revised29 May 2008
accepted22 August 2008
20 December 2017 (online)
Background: Trituration of base substances, commonly to the 3cH level, is the cornerstone of the homeopathic pharmaceutical process or insoluble solutions.1 Becker and Ehrler claim that trituration to 4cH gives a new, spiritual dimension to the homoeopathic medicine picture.2
Aim and method: This study sought to establish whether the claim that C4-derived potencies possess different physicochemical qualities to the homoeopathic medicines derived from a 3cH trituration is valid. All potencies were produced by hand according to the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (GHP). Five different samples were analysed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy.
Results: The results indicated a significant difference between the 12cH samples of potassium dichromate (Kalium bichromicum) produced from 3cH and 4cH triturations. This was especially prominent in the chemical shift values of all four peaks and the relative integration levels of the H2O, OH and CH3 peaks when comparing two sample groups.
Conclusion: Trituration plays a part in the development of physicochemical properties specific to homoeopathic medicines. The higher the level of trituration, the more pronounced is the alteration of the physical structure of the active ingredient. The study concludes that 4cH potencies are physicochemically distinct from 3cH-derived potencies (as currently employed).
- 1 Dellmour F. Importance of the 3c trituration in the manufacture of homoeopathic medicines. Br Hom J 1994; 83: 8-13.
- 2 Becker J, Ehrler W. The new dimension of C4-Homoeopathy, The Institute for Homoeopathic Medicine research (IHHF), 1998.
- 3 British Homoeopathic Association. German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia, 5th Supplement to the first edition. Stuttgart: Deutscher Apotheker Verlag; 1985. 36–38.
- 4 Barthel P. Hahnemann's Legacy– the Q (LM) potencies. Br Hom J 1991; 80: 112-121.
- 5 Hahnemann Instituut. C4 Protocol. <http://www.hahnemannistituut.nl> Accessed on 6 June 2004.
- 6 Dellmour F. The quality of Homeopathic medicines - Influences of starting materials and manufacturing procedures. Documenta Homoeopathica Band 18. 1998. Vienna: Wilhelm Maudrich; 223-289.
- 7 Brinton M., Miller M. C4 potencies: Exploring a different way of working with homeopathy. Homeopathy in Practice 2004; 4: 38-43.
- 8 Hahnemann S. Organon of medicine. 6th edn. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers Pvt Ltd; 1999. 198–209.
- 9 Cason A. A comparison of the 80Mhz, 200Mhz and 500Mhz Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra of Homoeopathic Sulphur 30CH. Durban: M.Tech. Hom. Dissertation, Durban Institute of Technology, 2002.
- 10 Davies TM. A comparison of Hahnemannian and Korsakovian Potentising Methods using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Durban: M.Tech. Hom. Dissertation, Technikon Natal; 2001.
- 11 Malan JF. A comparative study of the NMR spectra of parallel potencies of sulphur with reference to similarities of concentration and dynamisation. Durban: M.Tech. Hom. Dissertation, Durban Institute of Technology; 2002.
- 12 Milgrom L.R., King K.R., Lee J., Pinkus A.S. On the investigation of homeopathic potencies using low resolution NMR T2 relaxation times: an experimental and critical survey of the work of Roland Conte, et al. Br Hom J 2001; 90: 5-13.
- 13 Resch G., Gutman V. Scientific foundations of homoeopathy. Germany: Barthel and Barthel Publishing; 1987. Chap 10, 11243–284.