Homeopathy 2006; 95(02): 94-97
DOI: 10.1016/j.homp.2006.01.007
Original Paper
Copyright © The Faculty of Homeopathy 2006

Evaluation of isopathic treatment of Salmonella enteritidis in poultry

A. Berchieri Jr.
1   Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14870-000 Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
W.C.P. Turco
2   DES-FAR Laboratórios Ltda. Rua Eponina, 412. 03426-010 São Paulo-SP, Brazil
J.B. Paiva
1   Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14870-000 Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
G.H. Oliveira
1   Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14870-000 Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
E.V. Sterzo
1   Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14870-000 Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil
› Author Affiliations

Subject Editor:
Further Information

Publication History

Received11 May 2005
revised22 November 2005

accepted30 January 2006

Publication Date:
21 December 2017 (online)


Background: Salmonellosis is a common problem worldwide in commercially reared poultry. It is associated with human Salmonellosis. No fully satisfactory method of control is available.

Method: Nosodes to an antibiotic-resistant strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in D30 (30X) potency were prepared. One day old chicks (N=180) were divided into four groups: two control and two different preparations of the nosode. Treatments were administered in drinking water for 10 days. The birds were challenged by a broth culture of the same Salmonella, by mouth, on day 17. Cloacal swabs were taken twice weekly for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

Results: Birds receiving active treatment were less likely to grow the strain of Salmonella from cloacal swabs compared to control.

Conclusion: Isopathy is low cost and non-toxic. It may have a role to play in the widespread problem of Salmonella in poultry. Further research should be conducted.

  • References

  • 1 Snoeyenbos G.H., Weinack O.M., Smyser C.F. Protecting chickens and poultry from salmonellae by oral administration of ‘normal’ gut microflora. Avi Dis 1978; 22: 273-287.
  • 2 Gast R.K., Salmonella infections. In: Calnek B.W., Barnes H.J., Beard C.W., (eds)., Diseases of Poultry. 11th ed. Ames: lowa University Press, 2003. p. 567–613 (Chapter 16).
  • 3 Berchieri Jr A., Irino I., Neme S.N., Paulillo A.C., Calzada C.R. Contaminação por Salmonella em farinhas de origem animal no preparo de ração. Pesq Vet Bras 1984; 4 (03) 83-88.
  • 4 Barrow P.A., Lovell M.A. Experimental infeccion of egg-laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4. Avi Pathol 1991; 20: 335-338.
  • 5 Wall PG, Ward LR. Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 in England and Wales. In: Saeed AM (Editor in Chief). Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in Humans and Animals. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1999. p. 19–25.
  • 6 Davies R.H., Breslin M. Persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 in the enviroment and arthropod vectors on an empty free-range chicken farm. Environ Microbiol 2003; 5 (02) 79-84.
  • 7 Clark G.M., Kaufmann A.F., Gangarosa E.J. Epidemiology of international outbreak of Salmonella agona. Lancet 2 1973; 7827: 490-493.
  • 8 Berchieri Jr A. Salmoneloses Aviárias. in: Berchieri Jr A., Macari M. Doenças das aves. 2000. Campinas: FACTA; 185-195.
  • 9 Gast R.K., Beard C.W. Detecção de anticorpos específicos para salmonella sorogrupo D na gema de ovos produzidos por galinhas infectadas com Salmonella enteritidis. Poult Sci 1991; 70: 1273-1276.
  • 10 Barrow P.A. A Salmonella control—past, present and future. Avi Pathol 1993; 22: 651-669.
  • 11 Taunay A.E., Fernandes A.S., Tavechio A.T., Neves B.C., Dias A.M.G., Irino K. The role of public health laboratory in the problem of salmonellosis in São Paulo, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop 1996; 38: 119-127.
  • 12 Tavechio A.T., Fernandes A.S., Neves B.C., Dias A.M.G., Irino K. Changing patterns of Salmonella serovares: increase of Salmonella Enteritidis in São Paulo, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop 1996; 38: 315-322.
  • 13 Barrow P.A. The paratyphoid Salmonellae. Rev Sci Tech 2000; 19: 351-375.
  • 14 Barrow P.A. Salmonella infections in poultry—problems and new thoughts on the possibilities of control. Rev Bras Cienc Avi 1999; 1: 9-16.
  • 15 Gast R.K., Holt P.S. Assessing the frequency and consequences of Salmonella Enteritidis disposition on the egg yolk membrane. Poult Sci 2001; 80 (07) 997-1002.
  • 16 Davies R.H., Wray C. Contribution of the lesser mealworm beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus) to carrige of Salmonella enteritidis in poultry. Vet Rec 1995; 137: 407-408.
  • 17 Bygrave A.C., Gallager J. Transmission of Salmonella enteritidis . Vet Rec 1989; 125: 571.
  • 18 Nakamura M., Nagamine N., Takashi T., Suzuki S., Sato S. Evaluation of the efficacy of a bacterin against Salmonella Enteritidis infection and the effect of stress after vaccination. Avi Dis 1994; 38: 717-724.
  • 19 Rodrigue D.C., Tauxe R.V., Rowe B. International increase in Salmonella enteritidis: a new pandemic? Epidemiol Infect 1990; 105: 21-27.
  • 20 Brasil. Programa nacional de sanidade avícola. Portaria Ministerial N° 193, de 19 de setembro de 1994.
  • 21 Zancan F.T., Berchieri Jr A., Fernandes S.A. Salmonella spp investigation in transport boxes of day-old birds. Braz J Microbiol 2000; 31 (03) 229-232.
  • 22 Gama N.M.S.Q., Berchieri Jr A., Fernandes A.S. Occurrence of Salmonella sp in laying hens. Rev Bras Cienc Avi 2003; 5 (01) 15-21.
  • 23 Rosario BF, Mazorra MC, Morales RV, Pazos FL. Nosodes: Terapia Homeopática en las Mastitis Subclínica Bovina. Trabajo de Curso, Universidad Central de Las Villas. Facultad Ciencias Agropecuarias, 1999.
  • 24 Schutte A. Is research in veterinary homeopathy justified? Thoughts concerning principles and synopsis of 5 years of research on the subject, ‘Use of homeopathy in domestic animals,’ at the branch of the Free University of Berlin in Schwarzenbek. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 1994; 107 (07) 229-236.
  • 25 Albrecht H., Schutte A. Homeopathy versus antibiotics in metaphylaxis of infectious diseases: a clinical study in pig fattening and its significance to consumers. Altern Ther Health Med 1999; 5 (05) 64-68.
  • 26 Berchieri Jr A, Barrow PA. Desenvolvimento da microbiota intestinal em pintos de corte: Prós e contras. In: CONFERÊNCIA APINCO DE TECNOLOGIA AVÍCOLA, Campinas. Anais … 1998. p. 183–190.
  • 27 Smith H.W., Tucker J.F. The virulence of Salmonella strains for chickens: their excretion by infected chickens. J Hyg 1980; 84: 479-488.
  • 28 28 Farmacopéia Homeopática Brasileira, 1ª Ed. 1977 (Decreto 78841 de 25/11/1976 Portaria Ministerial 382/1977).
  • 29 Thrusfied M. Veterinary Epidemiology. Cambridge: Blakweel Science, 1995, p 479.
  • 30 Guajardo BG. Posología Homeopática de la Escuela Hahnemanniana-Kentiana. Instituto Politécnico Nacional. 1ra. Ed. México, 1996.
  • 31 Kossak-Romanach A. Homeopatia em 1000 conceitos, 2a. ed. São Paulo: Elcid, 1993. pp. 27, 447–455.
  • 32 Pazos FL, Famada B. Escherichia Coli Y Su Prevencion por Homeopatia. X Jornada Provincial de Medicina Veterinaria, Cienfuegos, 2001.
  • 33 Briones SF. Manual de Medicina Veterinaria Homeopática. Teoría y Práctica de la aplicación de la Homeopatía en Medicina Veterinaria. 2da. Ed. Propulsora de Homeopatía, S. A. División Editorial, México, 1997.
  • 34 Guajardo BG. La Dinamización, no la Dilución. Una sugerencia a todo investigador. Seminario de Farmacología de los Medicamentos Homeopáticos. ‘Nuevos Horizontes en Terapéutica Veterinaria’. División Educación Continuada. México, 28 y 29 de Sept. de 1994.
  • 35 Eizayaga FX. Tratado de medicina homeopática., 2a. ed. Buenos Aires: Marecel, 1981. pp. 69–70.
  • 36 Oliveira G.H., Berchieri Jr A., Barrow P.A. Prevention of Salmonella infection by contact using intestinal flora of adults birds and/or a mixture of organic acids. Braz J Microbiol 2000; 31: 116-120.
  • 37 Iba A.M., Berchieri Jr A. Studies on the use of a formic acid-propionic acid mixture (Bio-add) to control experimental Salmonella infection in broiler chickens. Avi Pathol 1995; 24: 303-311.
  • 38 Froyman R, Stephan B, Day C. Epidemiology of paratyphoid salmonellosis in a large broiler integration and the impact of the application of a normal gut flora at day old, In: International Symposium Salmonella and Salmonellosis, Anais… Ploufragan Saint-Brieuc, May 20–22, 1997. pp. 11–13.
  • 39 Gornham SL. Persistence of Salmonella Enteritidis in youg chickens, International Symposium Salmonella and Salmonellosis. Anais Ploufragan Saint-Brieuc, 1997. pp. 11–13.
  • 40 Patterson J.Á., Bukholder K.M. Application of prebiotics and probiotics in poultry production. Poult Sci 2003; 82 (04) 627-631.
  • 41 Timms L.M., Marshal R.N., Breslin M.F. Laborarory and field trial assessment of protection given by Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 inactivated, adjuvant vaccine. Braz Vet J 1994; 150: 93-102.
  • 42 Palermo Neto J. Panorama Mundial sobre resíduos de medicamentos veterinários. In: III Congresso de Produção e consumo de ovos—APA, Indaiatuba. Anais, 2005. pp. 17–32.