Homeopathy 2004; 93(03): 132-137
DOI: 10.1016/j.homp.2004.04.006
Original Paper
Copyright ©The Faculty of Homeopathy 2004

Homeopathically prepared dilution of Rana catesbeiana thyroid glands modifies its rate of metamorphosis

J.R.P Guedes
1  Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, SP, Brazil
C.M Ferreira
2  Agricultural Department of São Paulo State, Aquaculture Research Center, Fishery Institute, Brazil
H.M.B Guimarães
1  Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, SP, Brazil
P.H.N Saldiva
1  Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, SP, Brazil
V.L Capelozzi
1  Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, SP, Brazil
› Author Affiliations
Further Information

Publication History

Received14 October 2003
revised22 December 2003

accepted05 April 2004

Publication Date:
19 December 2017 (online)


One strand of research on the scientific basis of homeopathy is based on inversion effects of dilutions and the biophysical properties of information transfer. A model developed by Endler, was the basis for the study of the influence of high-diluted solution (1:1026 part by weight) of thyroid glands on the rate of metamorphosis of the frog Rana catesbeiana from the no legged to four-legged stage. The glands were obtained from tadpoles and prepared according by (dilution and succussion). Similar pure hydroalcoholic solution (unsuccussed) was used as control. In order to identify significant differences in the frequencies of four-legged tadpoles, in homeopathic and control group, we used a chi-square goodness-of-fit test (P<0.01) and the cumulative risk for metamorphosis by Cox's Proportional Hazards model (P<0.05). The number of animals that reached the four-legged stage is generally smaller in the treated group, than in the hydroalcoholic control group. It was postulated that thyroid hormones transmitted information’ specific to the molecules used to prepare the solution, even though the molarity was beyond Avogadro's number.

  • References

  • 1 Teixeira, MZ. Similitude in modern pharmacology. Br Hom J 1999; 88: 112–120.
  • 2 Valamparampil TT, Oommen OV. Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4) levels in Rana curtipes during development and metamorphosis. Indian J Exp Biol 1997; 35(12): 1375–1377.
  • 3 Tata JR. Amphibian metamorphosis as a model for studying the developmental actions of thyroid hormone. Biochimie 1999; 81: 359–366.
  • 4 Gosner KL. A simplified table for staging anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification. Herpetologica, Chicago 1960; 16: 1831–1890.
  • 5 Regard E, Taurog A, Nakashima T. Plasma thyroxin and triiodothyronina levels in spontaneous metamorphosing Rana catesbeiana tadpoles and in adult anuran amphibia. Endocrinology 1978; 102(3): 674–684.
  • 6 Endler PC, Pongratz W, Smith CW, Schulte J, Senekowitsch F, Citro M. Non molecular information transfer from thyroxin to frogs; by means of homeopathic preparation and electronic processing. In: Bastide M (ed). Signals and Images. Dordrecht: Kluwer 1997, pp 149–159.
  • 7 Linde K, Clausius N, Ramirez G, Melchart D, Eitel F, Hedges LV, Jonas WB. Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials [Articles]. Lancet 1997; 350(9081): 834–843.
  • 8 Endler PC, Pongratz W, Kastberger G, Wiegant FAC, Schulte J. The effect of highly diluted agitated thyroxine on the climbing activity of frogs. Vet Human Toxicol 1994; 36(1): 56–59.
  • 9 Endler PC, Pongrat ZW, Smith CW, Schulte J. Non molecular information transfer from thyroxin to frogs with regard to homeopathic toxicology. Vet Human Toxicol 1995; 37(3): 259–260.
  • 10 Farmacopéia Homeopática Brasileira, 2nd edn. São Paulo: Andrei, 1997.
  • 11 Dixon WJ, Massey FJ. Introduction to Statistical Analysis, 2nd edn. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1957, pp 226–227.
  • 12 Flores-Nava A, Olvera-Novoa MA, Gasca-Leyva E. A comparison of the effects of three water circulation regimes on the aquaculture of bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) tadpoles. Aquaculture 1994; 128: 105–114.
  • 13 Bastide M. Is the classical experimental method necessary to unconventional medicine basic research? Example of homeopathy. Texte publié dans le rapport du Programme Europı́en COST B4 (Co-Operation in Science and Technology). Online: http://www.webstore.fr/eim/costmad.htm 1998.
  • 14 Bonamin LV, Martinho KS, Nina AL, Caviglia F, Do Rio RG. Very high dilutions of dexamethasone inhibit its pharmacological effects in vivo. Br Hom J 2001; 90: 198–203.
  • 15 Endler PC, Lüdtke R, Heckmann C, Zausner C, Lassnig H, Pongratz W, Haidvogl M, Frass M. Pretreatment with thyroxin (10−8 parts by weight) enhances a “curative” effect of homeopathically prepared thyroxin (10−8) on lowland frogs. Research on Complementary Medicine/Forshende Komplementärmedizin. Online: http://inter-uni.net/download/2003%20Lowland%20RcM.pdf 2003.
  • 16 Agnostatos GS. On the structure of high dilutions according to the clathrate model. In: Taddei-Ferretti C, Marotta P (eds). High Dilution Effects on Cells and Integrated Systems. Singapore: World Scientific, 1998, pp 305–312.
  • 17 Benveniste J, Aissa J, Litime MH. Transfer of the molecular signal by electronic amplification. FASEB J 1994; 8: A398.
  • 18 Citro M, Endler PC, Pongratz W. Hormone effects by electronic transmission. FASEB J 9(3): A392–A392, 1995.
  • 19 Del Giudice E, Preparata G. Coherent electrodynamics in water. In: Schulte J, Endler PC (eds). Fundamental Research in Ultra High dilution and Homeopathy. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998, pp 89–104.
  • 20 Demangeat JL, Demangeat C, Gries P, Poitevin B, Constantinesco A. Modifications du temps de relaxation RNM a 4 MHz des protons du solvant dans les très hautes dilutions salines de silice/lactose. J Med Nucl Biophys 1992; 16(2): 135–145.
  • 21 Jerman I, Berden M, Skarja M. Instrumental measurements of different homeopathic dilutions of Potassium Iodine in water. Acupuncture Electro-Ther Res Int J 1999; 24: 29–44.
  • 22 Lobyshev VI, Kuznetsova E, Klepetkova LN. Self organisation of water and heavily diluted aqueous solutions as a basis for homeopathic action. FACT, 2000; 5: 94.
  • 23 Milgrom LR, King KR, Lee J, Pinkus AS. On the investigation of homeopathic potencies using low-resolution NMR T2 relaxation times: an experimental and critical survey of the work of Roland Conte et al. Br Hom J 2001; 90: 5–13.
  • 24 Schulte J. Effects of potentization in aqueous solutions. Br Hom J 1999; 88: 155–160.
  • 25 Walach H. Magic of signs: a non-local interpretation of homeopathy. Br Hom J 2000; 89: 127–140.