Effect of Arnica D30 in marathon runners. Pooled results from two double-blind placebo controlled studies
Received24 June 2002
revised14 February 2003
accepted20 March 2003
12 December 2017 (online)
Objective: To examine whether the homeopathic medicine Arnica D30 has an effect on muscle soreness and cell damage after marathon running.
Methods: The subjects were 82 marathon runners from two separate randomised double-blind placebo controlled trials participating in the Oslo Marathon in 1990 and 1995. Five pills of Arnica D30 or placebo were given morning and evening. Treatment started on the evening before the marathon and continued on day of the race and the three following days. The runners assessed muscular soreness on a visual analogue scale. Muscle enzymes, electrolytes and creatinine were measured before and after the marathon.
Results: Muscle soreness immediately after the marathon run was lower in the Arnica group than in the placebo group (P=0.04). Cell damage measured by enzymes was similar in the Arnica and the placebo group.
Conclusion: These pooled results suggest that Arnica D30 has a positive effect on muscle soreness after marathon running, but not on cell damage measured by enzymes.
- 1 Kleijnen J, Knipschild P, Rietter G. Clinical trials of homeopathy. BMJ 1991; 302: 316–323.
- 2 Linde K, Clausius N, Ramirez G, et al. Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Lancet 1997; 350: 834–843.
- 3 Boericke W. Homoeopathic Materia Medica, 2nd edn, B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd, India, 1990.
- 4 Dorfman P, Amodeo C, Ricciotti F, Tètau M, Vèroux G. Evaluation de l‘activitè d’arnica 5 CH sur les troubles veineux après perfusion prolongèe. Cah Biother 1988; 98 (Suppl): 77–82.
- 5 Pinsent RJ, Baker GP, Ives G, Davey RW, Jonas S. Does Arnica reduce pain and bleeding after dental extraction. Commun Br Homoeopath Res Group 1986; 15: 3–11.
- 6 Jeffrey SL, Belcher HJ. Use of Arnica to relieve pain after carpal-tunnel release surgery. Altern Ther Health Med 2002; 8: 66–68.
- 7 Raison JV, Heilmann J, Merfort T, et al. Arnika—Arzneipflanze mit Traditionen und Zukunft. Z Phytother 2000; 21: 39–54.
- 8 Barrois D. Entraı̂nement du sportif en homéopathie. Homéopathie Francaise 1988; 76: 315–318.
- 9 Sau VD, Delaunay M. Médicine douce et sport dur: un mariage heureux. Homéopathie Francaise 1983; 71: 147–149.
- 10 Vickers AJ, Fisher P, Smith C, Wyllie SE, Rees R. Homeopathic Arnica D.30 is ineffective for muscle soreness after long-distance running: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin J Pain 1998; 14: 227–231.
- 11 Ernst E, Pittler MH. Efficacy of homeopathic arnica: a systematic review of placebo-controlled clinical trials. Arch Surg 1998; 133: 1187–1190.
- 12 Rose LI, Bousser JE, Cooper KH. Serum enzymes after marathon running. J Appl Physiol 1970; 29: 355–357.
- 13 Strømme SB, Tveit B, Refsum HE. Enzymatic Changes Following Prolonged Heavy Exercise. Biochemistry of Exercise. Regulatory Mechanisms in Metabolism during Exercise. Miami. Symposia Specialists, Inc, 1978.
- 14 Tiidus PM, Ianuzzo CD. Effects of intensity and duration of muscular exercise on delayed soreness and serum enzyme activities. Med Sci Sports Exercise 1983; 15: 461–465.
- 15 Tveiten D, Bruset S, Borchgrevink Chr.F, Løhne K. Effect of Arnica D 30 on hard physical exercise. Tidskr Nor Lægeforen 1991; 111: 3630–3631.
- 16 Tveiten D, Bruset S, Borchgrevink CF, Norseth J. Effects of the homoeopathic remedy Arnica D.30 on marathon runners: a randomized, double-blind study during the 1995 Oslo Marathon. Complement Ther Med 1998; 6: 71–74.
- 17 Diggle PJ, Liang K, Zeger SL. Analysis of Longitudinal Data. Oxford: Oxford Science Publications, 1994.