Homeopathy 2003; 92(03): 174
DOI: 10.1016/S1475-4916(03)00045-6
Original Paper
Copyright ©The Faculty of Homeopathy 2003

Homeopathically prepared gibberellic acid and barley seed germination

B Hamman
1  Department of Botany, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
,
G Koning
1  Department of Botany, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
,
K Him Lok
2  Department of Homoeopathy, Technikon of Natal, Durban, South Africa
› Institutsangaben
Weitere Informationen

Publikationsverlauf

Received31. Oktober 2002
revised03. Dezember 2002

accepted20. März 2003

Publikationsdatum:
21. Dezember 2017 (online)

Abstract

The potentisation process by which homeopathic preparations are produced raises the concern that these medicines have placebo effects only, since they theoretically no longer contain active molecules of the diluted substance. Plant models offer a method of examining the efficacy of homeopathically prepared solutions. This study examined the effects of homeopathically prepared gibberellic acid (HGA3) on the germination performance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds. The effect of HGA3 (4–200 cH) on seed germination rate and seedling development was compared to that of the most commonly used form of gibberellic acid (GA3), 0.5 g l−1, and control (distilled water). The extent and type of response was dependent on the vigour level of the seedlot. Treating seeds from three vigour groups in HGA3 consistently resulted in larger seedlings. High-vigour seeds treated with HGA3 4, 30 and 200 cH germinated faster, and roots of medium-vigour seedlots treated in HGA3 15 cH were longer. Biphasic effects of HGA3 were also demonstrated. As a plant model, germinating barley seeds successfully demonstrated the ability of HGA3 to produce a biological response.

 
  • References

  • 1 Linde K, Clausius N, Ramirez G, et al. Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Lancet 1997; 350: 834–843.
  • 2 Barlow DH, Durand VM. Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach. California: Brookes Cole Publishing Company, 1995, pp 130.
  • 3 Winston J. The Faces of Homoeopathy. Oakland, CA: RR Donnely and Sons Company, 1999, pp 451.
  • 4 Scofield AM. Homoeopathy and its potential role in agriculture—a critical review. Biol Agric Hortic 1984; 2: 1–50.
  • 5 Pelikan W, Unger G. The activity of potentized substances. Br Hom J 1971; 60: 232–266.
  • 6 Jones RL, Jenkins MD. Plant responses to homoeopathic remedies. Br Hom J 1981; 70: 120–128.
  • 7 Jones RL, Jenkins MD. Comparison of wheat and yeast as in vitro models for investigating homoeopathic medicines. Br Hom J 1983; 72: 143–147.
  • 8 Bornoroni C. Synergism of action between indoleacetic acid (IAA) and highly diluted solutions of CaCO3 on the growth of oat coleoptiles. Berlin J Res Hom 1991; 1: 275–278.
  • 9 Betti L, Brizzi M, Nani D, Peruzzi M. A pilot statistical study with homoeopathic potencies of Arsenicum album in wheat germination as a simple model. Br Hom J 1994; 83: 195–201.
  • 10 Pongratz W, Endler PC. Reappraisal of a classical botanical experiment in ultra-high dilution research: energetic coupling in a wheat model. In: Endler PC, Schulte J (eds) Ultra-high Dilution, Physiology and Physics. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994, pp 19–26.
  • 11 Hopkins CR. The effect of homoeopathic treatment on percentage germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds and the effect of a homoeopathic antidote upon this. Diss: M. Tech. Homoeopathy. Technikon Natal, Durban, South Africa, 1998.
  • 12 Association of Official Seed Analysts. Rules for Testing Seeds, Lincoln, NE: Association of Official Seed Analysts, 1998.
  • 13 British Homoeopathic Association. German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia, 5th suppl., 1st edn. Stuttgart: Deutscher Apotheker Verlag, 1985 pp 35–36.
  • 14 Jouanny J. The Essentials of Homoeopathy Therapeutics. France: Boiron, 1993, pp 417.
  • 15 Vithoulkas G. The Science of Homoeopathy. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers, 1990, pp 331.
  • 16 International Seed Testing Association. Handbook of Vigour Testing Methods, 3rd edn. Zurich: International Seed Testing Association, 1995.
  • 17 Tipton JL. Evaluation of three growth curve models for germination data analysis. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 1984; 109: 451–454.
  • 18 Chandler PM, Jacobsen JV. Primer extension studies on α-amylase mRNAs in barley aleurone II Hormonal regulation of expression. Plant Mol Biol 1991; 16: 637–645.
  • 19 Jacobsen JV, Chandler PM. Gibberellin and abscisic acid in germinating cereals. In: Davies PJ (ed). Plant Hormones and Their Role in Plant Growth and Development. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff, 1987, pp 164–193.
  • 20 Bewley JD, Black M. Seeds: Physiology of Development and Germination, 2nd edn. New York: Plenum Press, 1994.
  • 21 Copeland LO, McDonald MB. Principles of Seed Science and Technology, 3rd edn. New York: Chapman & Hall, 1995, pp 409.
  • 22 Gaier H. Thorson's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Homoeopathy. London: Thorson's, 1991, pp 601.
  • 23 Taiz L, Zeiger E. Plant Physiology, 2nd edn. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, 1995, pp 591–619.
  • 24 Van der Meulen RM, Lamers GEM, Caspers MPM, et al. Effects of fusicoccin and gibberllic acid on the germination of embryos from dormant barley grains: roles of starch degradation and external pH. Seed Sci Res 2000; 10: 171–182.
  • 25 Oberbaum M, Cambar J. Hormesis: Dose-dependent reverse effects of low and very low doses. In: Endler PC, Schulte J (eds). Ultra-high Dilution, Physiology and Physics. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994, pp 5–18.