Brauer, Jeremy A.: 2024 Men's Aesthetics: A Practical Guide to Minimally Invasive Treatment DOI: 10.1055/b-0043-198237

10 Aesthetic Concerns in Skin of Color Patients

More Information

Book

Editor: Brauer, Jeremy A.

Authors: Aguilera, Shino Bay; Alam, Murad; Alexis, Andrew F.; Belaidi, Marisa; Bertucci, Vince; Brodsky, Merrick A.; Chang, Yunyoung C.; Chesnut, Cameron; Cotofana, Sebastian; Dutton, Jonathan J.; Erlendsson, Andrés M.; Friedmann, Daniel P.; Green, Jeremy B.; Hanna, Edith A.; Henry, Michelle; Hibler, Brian P.; Hsu, Derek; Keaney, Terrence C.; Lipp, Michael B.; MacGregor, Jennifer L.; Montes, José R.; Munavalli, Gilly; Pineiro, Mildred Lopez; Robinson, Deanne Mraz; Rossi, Anthony M.; MD, Nicole E. Rogers; Reserva, Jeave; Saedi, Nazanin; Sandre, Matthew K.; Soon, Seaver; Soro, Luis; Tung, Rebecca; Wang, Jordan V.; Xing, Yiping

Title: Men's Aesthetics: A Practical Guide to Minimally Invasive Treatment

Print ISBN: 9783132428379; Online ISBN: 9783132437197; Book DOI: 10.1055/b000000260

Subjects: Plastic, Reconstructive and Cosmetic Surgery;Minimalinvasive Surgery, Laser Surgery, Laparoscopy

Thieme Clinical Collections (English Language)



 
Andrew Alexis and Michelle Henry

Summary

Men of color represent a diverse segment of the male patient population with specific aesthetic concerns and unique considerations. This cohort includes, but is not limited to, individuals of African, Asian (East and South), Hispanic/Latin American, and Middle Eastern ancestry who are more likely to have Fitzpatrick skin phototypes IV to VI. Despite the considerable size and projected growth of this population, there is a paucity of published literature or research studies addressing aesthetic concerns in men with skin of color. Understanding the needs of ethnic skin is critical to obtaining good patient outcomes in the field of aesthetic dermatology. Although there is an appreciation for the fundamental differences between different Fitzpatrick skin types, there is a distinct lack of research and management guidelines specifying differences in ethnic skin. This chapter will serve as an introduction and guide to evaluating, assessing, and treating the unique and diverse aesthetic concern in men of color.

 
  • 1 Lawson CN, Hollinger J, Sethi S et al. Updates in the understanding and treatments of skin & hair disorders in women of color.. Int J Womens Dermatol 2017; 3 (1) (Suppl. Suppl) S21-S37 PubMed (PMID: 28492036)
  • 2 Henry M, Sadick N. Aesthetic considerations in female skin of color: what you need to know.. Semin Cutan Med Surg 2018; 37 (4) 210-216 PubMed (PMID: 30475929)
  • 3 Taylor SC. Skin of color: biology, structure, function, and implications for dermatologic disease.. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 46 (2) (Suppl. Suppl Understanding) S41-S62 PubMed (PMID: 11807469)
  • 4 Andersen KE, Maibach HI. Black and white human skin differences.. J Am Acad Dermatol 1979; 1 (3) 276-282 PubMed (PMID: 92483)
  • 5 Berardesca E, Maibach H. Racial differences in skin pathophysiology.. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996; 34 (4) 667-672 PubMed (PMID: 8601658)
  • 6 Montagna W, Carlisle K. The architecture of black and white facial skin.. J Am Acad Dermatol 1991; 24 (6, Pt 1) 929-937 PubMed (PMID: 1714469)
  • 7 Weigand DA, Haygood C, Gaylor JR. Cell layers and density of Negro and Caucasian stratum corneum.. J Invest Dermatol 1974; 62 (6) 563-568 PubMed (PMID: 4835777)
  • 8 Choi W, Kolbe L, Hearing VJ. Characterization of the bioactive motif of neuregulin-1, a fibroblast-derived paracrine factor that regulates the constitutive color and the function of melanocytes in human skin.. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 2012; 25 (4) 477-481 PubMed (PMID: 22494484)
  • 9 Yoshida-Amano Y, Hachiya A, Ohuchi A et al. Essential role of RAB27A in determining constitutive human skin color.. PLoS One 2012; 7 (7) e41160 PubMed (PMID: 22844437)
  • 10 Lawson CN, Hollinger J, Sethi S et al. Updates in the understanding and treatments of skin & hair disorders in women of color.. Int J Womens Dermatol 2015; 1 (2) 59-75 PubMed (PMID: 28491960)
  • 11 Gambichler T, Matip R, Moussa G, Altmeyer P, Hoffmann K. In vivo data of epidermal thickness evaluated by optical coherence tomography: effects of age, gender, skin type, and anatomic site.. J Dermatol Sci 2006; 44 (3) 145-152 PubMed (PMID: 17071059)
  • 12 Thomson ML. Relative efficiency of pigment and horny layer thickness in protecting the skin of Europeans and Africans against solar ultraviolet radiation.. J Physiol 1955; 127 (2) 236-246 PubMed (PMID: 14354667)
  • 13 Corcuff P, Lotte C, Rougier A, Maibach HI. Racial differences in corneocytes. A comparison between black, white and oriental skin.. Acta Derm Venereol 1991; 71 (2) 146-148 PubMed (PMID: 1675524)
  • 14 Primavera G, Berardesca E. Clinical and instrumental evaluation of a food supplement in improving skin hydration.. Int J Cosmet Sci 2005; 27 (4) 199-204 PubMed (PMID: 18492188)
  • 15 Fluhr JW, Dickel H, Kuss O, Weyher I, Diepgen TL, Berardesca E. Impact of anatomical location on barrier recovery, surface pH and stratum corneum hydration after acute barrier disruption.. Br J Dermatol 2002; 146 (5) 770-776 PubMed (PMID: 12000372)
  • 16 Berardesca E, Maibach HI. Transepidermal water loss and skin surface hydration in the non invasive assessment of stratum corneum function.. Derm Beruf Umwelt 1990; 38 (2) 50-53 PubMed (PMID: 2187664)
  • 17 Ji JH, Park TS, Lee HJ et al. The ethnic differences of the damage of hair and integral hair lipid after ultra violet radiation.. Ann Dermatol 2013; 25 (1) 54-60 PubMed (PMID: 23467772)
  • 18 Laatsch CN, Durbin-Johnson BP, Rocke DM et al. Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis.. PeerJ 2014; 2: e506 PubMed (PMID: 25165623)
  • 19 American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. Cosmetic Surgery National Data Bank: Statistics. Arlington Heights, IL: American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery; 2018
  • 20 Alexis AF, Few J, Callender VD et al. Myths and knowledge gaps in the aesthetic treatment of patients with skin of color.. J Drugs Dermatol 2019; 18 (7) 616-622 PubMed (PMID: 31329382)
  • 21 Rossi A, Alexis AF. Cosmetic procedures in skin of color.. G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2011; 146 (4) 265-272 PubMed (PMID: 21785392)
  • 22 Awosika O, Burgess CM, Grimes PE. Considerations when treating cosmetic concerns in men of color.. Dermatol Surg 2017; 43 (Suppl. Suppl 2) S140-S150 PubMed (PMID: 29064976)
  • 23 Callender VD. Commentary on considerations when treating cosmetic concerns in men of color.. Dermatol Surg 2017; 43 (Suppl. Suppl 2) S151-S152 PubMed (PMID: 29064977)
  • 24 Downie J, Schneider K, Goberdhan L, Makino ET, Mehta RC. Combination of in-office chemical peels with a topical comprehensive pigmentation control product in skin of color subjects with facial hyperpigmentation.. J Drugs Dermatol 2017; 16 (4) 301-306 PubMed (PMID: 28403262)
  • 25 Sarkar R, Parmar NV, Kapoor S. Treatment of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation with a combination of glycolic acid peels and a topical regimen in dark-skinned patients: a comparative study.. Dermatol Surg 2017; 43 (4) 566-573 PubMed (PMID: 28114204)
  • 26 Godse K, Sakhia J. Triple combination and glycolic peels in post-acne hyperpigmentation.. J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2012; 5 (1) 60-61 PubMed (PMID: 22557866)
  • 27 Joshi SS, Boone SL, Alam M et al. Effectiveness, safety, and effect on quality of life of topical salicylic acid peels for treatment of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in dark skin.. Dermatol Surg 2009; 35 (4) 638-644, discussion 644 PubMed (PMID: 19400885)
  • 28 Garg VK, Sinha S, Sarkar R. Glycolic acid peels versus salicylic-mandelic acid peels in active acne vulgaris and post-acne scarring and hyperpigmentation: a comparative study.. Dermatol Surg 2009; 35 (1) 59-65 PubMed (PMID: 19076192)
  • 29 Burns RL, Prevost-Blank PL, Lawry MA, Lawry TB, Faria DT, Fivenson DP. Glycolic acid peels for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in black patients. A comparative study.. Dermatol Surg 1997; 23 (3) 171-174, discussion 175 PubMed (PMID: 9145958)
  • 30 Bae YC et al. Treatment of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation in patients with darker skin types using a low energy 1,927 nm non-ablative fractional laser: a retrospective photographic review analysis.. Lasers Surg Med 2020; 52 (1) 7-12 PubMed (PMID: 31663147)
  • 31 Kaufman-Janette J, Cazzaniga A, Ballin A, Swanson-Garcell R. Effectiveness of a nutraceutical during non-ablative 1927 nm fractional laser on patients with facial hyperpigmentation and photoaging.. J Drugs Dermatol 2017; 16 (5) 501-506 PubMed (PMID: 28628688)
  • 32 Lee SJ, Chung WS, Lee JD, Kim HS. A patient with cupping-related post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation successfully treated with a 1,927 nm thulium fiber fractional laser.. J Cosmet Laser Ther 2014; 16 (2) 66-68 PubMed (PMID: 24131066)
  • 33 Oram Y, Akkaya AD. Refractory postinflammatory hyperpigmentation treated fractional CO2 laser.. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2014; 7 (3) 42-44 PubMed (PMID: 24688626)
  • 34 Rokhsar CK, Ciocon DH. Fractional photothermolysis for the treatment of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation after carbon dioxide laser resurfacing.. Dermatol Surg 2009; 35 (3) 535-537 PubMed (PMID: 19250297)
  • 35 Munavalli G. A split-face assessment of the synergistic potential of sequential Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and 1565 nm fractional nonablative laser treatment for facial rejuvenation in Fitzpatrick skin type II-V patients.. J Drugs Dermatol 2016; 15 (11) 1335-1342 PubMed (PMID: 28095544)
  • 36 Brown AS, Hussain M, Goldberg DJ. Treatment of melasma with low fluence, large spot size, 1064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser for the treatment of melasma in Fitzpatrick skin types II-IV.. J Cosmet Laser Ther 2011; 13 (6) 280-282 PubMed (PMID: 21992660)
  • 37 Moody MN, Landau JM, Vergilis-Kalner IJ, Goldberg LH, Marquez D, Friedman PM. 1,064-nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser and 1,550-nm fractionated erbium-doped fiber laser for the treatment of nevus of Ota in Fitzpatrick skin type IV.. Dermatol Surg 2011; 37 (8) 1163-1167 PubMed (PMID: 21635619)
  • 38 Saedi N, Metelitsa A. Commentary on Q-switched 660-nm versus 532-nm Nd: YAG laser for the treatment for facial lentigines in Asian patients.. Dermatol Surg 2015; 41 (12) 1396-1397 PubMed (PMID: 26551774)
  • 39 Noh TK, Chung BY, Yeo UC, Chang S, Lee MW, Chang SE. Q-switched 660-nm versus 532-nm Nd: YAG laser for the treatment for facial lentigines in Asian patients: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, split-face comparison pilot study.. Dermatol Surg 2015; 41 (12) 1389-1395 PubMed (PMID: 26551773)
  • 40 Kim HS, Kim EK, Jung KE, Park YM, Kim HO, Lee JY. A split-face comparison of low-fluence Q-switched Nd: YAG laser plus 1550 nm fractional photothermolysis vs. Q-switched Nd: YAG monotherapy for facial melasma in Asian skin.. J Cosmet Laser Ther 2013; 15 (3) 143-149 PubMed (PMID: 23607714)
  • 41 Saedi N, Chan HH, Dover JS. Treating lentigines in Asian patients with the Q-switched Alexandrite laser.. J Drugs Dermatol 2011; 10 (12) (Suppl. Suppl) s14-s15 PubMed (PMID: 22577686)
  • 42 Kim S, Cho KH. Treatment of procedure-related postinflammatory hyperpigmentation using 1064-nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with low fluence in Asian patients: report of five cases.. J Cosmet Dermatol 2010; 9 (4) 302-306 PubMed (PMID: 21122049)
  • 43 Kim S, Cho KH. Treatment of facial postinflammatory hyperpigmentation with facial acne in Asian patients using a Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser.. Dermatol Surg 2010; 36 (9) 1374-1380 PubMed (PMID: 20629693)
  • 44 Metelitsa AI. Commentary: treatment of facial postinflammatory hyperpigmentation with facial acne in Asian patients using a novel Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser.. Dermatol Surg 2010; 36 (9) 1381 PubMed (PMID: 20629692)
  • 45 Park JM, Tsao H, Tsao S. Combined use of intense pulsed light and Q-switched ruby laser for complex dyspigmentation among Asian patients.. Lasers Surg Med 2008; 40 (2) 128-133 PubMed (PMID: 18306166)
  • 46 Wang CC, Sue YM, Yang CH, Chen CK. A comparison of Q-switched alexandrite laser and intense pulsed light for the treatment of freckles and lentigines in Asian persons: a randomized, physician-blinded, split-face comparative trial.. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 54 (5) 804-810 PubMed (PMID: 16635661)
  • 47 Jang KA, Chung EC, Choi JH, Sung KJ, Moon KC, Koh JK. Successful removal of freckles in Asian skin with a Q-switched alexandrite laser.. Dermatol Surg 2000; 26 (3) 231-234 PubMed (PMID: 10759799)
  • 48 Zhou X, Gold MH, Lu Z, Li Y. Efficacy and safety of Q-switched 1,064-nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser treatment of melasma.. Dermatol Surg 2011; 37 (7) 962-970 PubMed (PMID: 21615824)
  • 49 Vachiramon V, Sahawatwong S, Sirithanabadeekul P. Treatment of melasma in men with low-fluence Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser versus combined laser and glycolic acid peeling.. Dermatol Surg 2015; 41 (4) 457-465 PubMed (PMID: 25760554)
  • 50 Lee MC, Lin YF, Hu S et al. A split-face study: comparison of picosecond alexandrite laser and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of melasma in Asians.. Lasers Med Sci 2018; 33 (8) 1733-1738 PubMed (PMID: 29732522)
  • 51 Haimovic A, Brauer JA, Cindy Bae YS, Geronemus RG. Safety of a picosecond laser with diffractive lens array (DLA) in the treatment of Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI: a retrospective review.. J Am Acad Dermatol 2016; 74 (5) 931-936 PubMed (PMID: 26947448)
  • 52 Levin MK, Ng E, Bae YS, Brauer JA, Geronemus RG. Treatment of pigmentary disorders in patients with skin of color with a novel 755 nm picosecond, Q-switched ruby, and Q-switched Nd:YAG nanosecond lasers: a retrospective photographic review.. Lasers Surg Med 2016; 48 (2) 181-187 PubMed (PMID: 26922302)
  • 53 Wang YJ et al. Prospective randomized controlled trial comparing treatment efficacy and tolerance of picosecond alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array and triple combination cream in female Asian patients with melasma.. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2020; 34 (3) 624-63 PubMed (PMID: 31494973)
  • 54 Chen YT, Lin ET, Chang CC et al. Efficacy and safety evaluation of picosecond alexandrite laser with a diffractive lens array for treatment of melasma in Asian patients by VISIA imaging system.. Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg 2019; 37 (9) 559-566 PubMed (PMID: 31411549)
  • 55 Jo DJ, Kang IH, Baek JH, Gwak MJ, Lee SJ, Shin MK. Using reflectance confocal microscopy to observe in vivo melanolysis after treatment with the picosecond alexandrite laser and Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in melasma.. Lasers Surg Med 2018; PubMed (PMID: 30351494)
  • 56 Lee YJ, Shin HJ, Noh TK, Choi KH, Chang SE. Treatment of melasma and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation by a picosecond 755-nm alexandrite laser in Asian patients.. Ann Dermatol 2017; 29 (6) 779-781 PubMed (PMID: 29200769)
  • 57 Chalermchai T, Rummaneethorn P. Effects of a fractional picosecond 1,064 nm laser for the treatment of dermal and mixed type melasma.. J Cosmet Laser Ther 2018; 20 (3) 134-139 PubMed (PMID: 29020467)
  • 58 Choi YJ, Nam JH, Kim JY et al. Efficacy and safety of a novel picosecond laser using combination of 1 064 and 595 nm on patients with melasma: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, split-face, 2% hydroquinone cream-controlled clinical trial.. Lasers Surg Med 2017; 49 (10) 899-907 PubMed (PMID: 28906574)
  • 59 Cassiano DP, Espósito ACC, Hassun KM, Lima EVA, Bagatin E, Miot HA. Early clinical and histological changes induced by microneedling in facial melasma: a pilot study.. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2019; 85 (6) 638-641 PubMed (PMID: 31607716)
  • 60 Ismail ESA, Patsatsi A, Abd El-Maged WM, Nada EEAE. Efficacy of microneedling with topical vitamin C in the treatment of melasma.. J Cosmet Dermatol 2019; PubMed (PMID: 30770637)
  • 61 Lima EVA, Lima MMDA, Paixão MP, Miot HA. Assessment of the effects of skin microneedling as adjuvant therapy for facial melasma: a pilot study.. BMC Dermatol 2017; 17 (1) 14 PubMed (PMID: 29183309)
  • 62 Ustuner P, Balevi A, Ozdemir M. A split-face, investigator-blinded comparative study on the efficacy and safety of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser plus microneedling with vitamin C versus Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for the treatment of recalcitrant melasma.. J Cosmet Laser Ther 2017; 19 (7) 383-390 PubMed (PMID: 28657378)
  • 63 Lima EdeA. Microneedling in facial recalcitrant melasma: report of a series of 22 cases.. An Bras Dermatol 2015; 90 (6) 919-921 PubMed (PMID: 26734882)
  • 64 Budamakuntla L, Loganathan E, Suresh DH et al. A randomised, open-label, comparative study of tranexamic acid microinjections and tranexamic acid with microneedling in patients with melasma.. J Cutan Aesthet Surg 2013; 6 (3) 139-143 PubMed (PMID: 24163529)
  • 65 Kwon HH, Choi SC, Jung JY, Park GH. Combined treatment of melasma involving low-fluence Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and fractional microneedling radiofrequency.. J Dermatolog Treat 2019; 30 (4) 352-356 PubMed (PMID: 30160539)
  • 66 Kauvar AN. Successful treatment of melasma using a combination of microdermabrasion and Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers.. Lasers Surg Med 2012; 44 (2) 117-124 PubMed (PMID: 22334295)
  • 67 Kauvar ANB. Commentary on the clinical and histological effect of a low-fluence Q-switched 1,064-nm neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser for the treatment of melasma and solar lentigenes in Asians.. Dermatol Surg 2017; 43 (9) 1134-1136 PubMed (PMID: 28661993)
  • 68 Brauer JA, Alabdulrazzaq H, Bae YS, Geronemus RG. Evaluation of a low energy, low density, non-ablative fractional 1927 nm wavelength laser for facial skin resurfacing.. J Drugs Dermatol 2015; 14 (11) 1262-1267 PubMed (PMID: 26580875)
  • 69 Vemula S, Maymone MBC, Secemsky EA et al. Assessing the safety of superficial chemical peels in darker skin: a retrospective study.. J Am Acad Dermatol 2018; 79 (3) 508-513.e2 PubMed (PMID: 29518457)
  • 70 Alexis AF. Lasers and light-based therapies in ethnic skin: treatment options and recommendations for Fitzpatrick skin types V and VI.. Br J Dermatol 2013; 169 (Suppl. Suppl 3) 91-97 PubMed (PMID: 24098905)
  • 71 Roberts WE, Henry M, Burgess C, Saedi N, Chilukuri S, Campbell-Chambers DA. Laser treatment of skin of color for medical and aesthetic uses with a new 650-microsecond Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser.. J Drugs Dermatol 2019; 18 (4) s135-s137 PubMed (PMID: 31017752)
  • 72 Kaushik SB, Alexis AF. Nonablative fractional laser resurfacing in skin of color: evidence-based review.. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2017; 10 (6) 51-67 PubMed (PMID: 28979657)
  • 73 Alexis AF, Coley MK, Nijhawan RI et al. Nonablative fractional laser resurfacing for acne scarring in patients with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes IV-VI.. Dermatol Surg 2016; 42 (3) 392-402 PubMed (PMID: 26945321)
  • 74 Clark CM, Silverberg JI, Alexis AF. A retrospective chart review to assess the safety of nonablative fractional laser resurfacing in Fitzpatrick skin types IV to VI.. J Drugs Dermatol 2013; 12 (4) 428-431 PubMed (PMID: 23652890)
  • 75 Alexis AF. Fractional laser resurfacing of acne scarring in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI.. J Drugs Dermatol 2011; 10 (12) (Suppl. Suppl) s6-s7 PubMed (PMID: 22134557)
  • 76 Lipper GM, Perez M. Nonablative acne scar reduction after a series of treatments with a short-pulsed 1,064-nm neodymium:YAG laser.. Dermatol Surg 2006; 32 (8) 998-1006 PubMed (PMID: 16918561)
  • 77 Badawi A, Tome MA, Atteya A, Sami N, Morsy IA. Retrospective analysis of non-ablative scar treatment in dark skin types using the sub-millisecond Nd:YAG 1,064 nm laser.. Lasers Surg Med 2011; 43 (2) 130-136 PubMed (PMID: 21384394)
  • 78 Brauer JA, Kazlouskaya V, Alabdulrazzaq H et al. Use of a picosecond pulse duration laser with specialized optic for treatment of facial acne scarring.. JAMA Dermatol 2015; 151 (3) 278-284 PubMed (PMID: 25409158)
  • 79 Battle F, Battle S. Clinical evaluation of safety and efficacy of fractional radiofrequency facial treatment of skin type VI patients.. J Drugs Dermatol 2018; 17 (11) 1169-1172 PubMed (PMID: 30481955)
  • 80 Emer JJ. Best practices and evidenced-based use of the 800 nm diode laser for the treatment of pseudofolliculitis barbae in skin of color.. J Drugs Dermatol 2011; 10 (12) (Suppl. Suppl) s20-s22 PubMed (PMID: 22577689)
  • 81 Kauvar AN. Treatment of pseudofolliculitis with a pulsed infrared laser.. Arch Dermatol 2000; 136 (11) 1343-1346 PubMed (PMID: 11074696)
  • 82 Leheta TM. Comparative evaluation of long pulse alexandrite laser and intense pulsed light systems for pseudofolliculitis barbae treatment with one year of follow up.. Indian J Dermatol 2009; 54 (4) 364-368 PubMed (PMID: 20101340)
  • 83 Rogers CJ, Glaser DA. Treatment of pseudofolliculitis barbae using the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with topical carbon suspension.. Dermatol Surg 2000; 26 (8) 737-742 PubMed (PMID: 10940059)
  • 84 Ross EV, Cooke LM, Overstreet KA, Buttolph GD, Blair MA. Treatment of pseudofolliculitis barbae in very dark skin with a long pulse Nd:YAG laser.. J Natl Med Assoc 2002; 94 (10) 888-893 PubMed (PMID: 12408693)
  • 85 Ross EV, Cooke LM, Timko AL, Overstreet KA, Graham BS, Barnette DJ. Treatment of pseudofolliculitis barbae in skin types IV, V, and VI with a long-pulsed neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser.. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 47 (2) 263-270 PubMed (PMID: 12140474)
  • 86 Schulze R, Meehan KJ, Lopez A et al. Low-fluence 1,064-nm laser hair reduction for pseudofolliculitis barbae in skin types IV, V, and VI.. Dermatol Surg 2009; 35 (1) 98-107 PubMed (PMID: 19076188)
  • 87 Smith EP, Winstanley D, Ross EV. Modified superlong pulse 810 nm diode laser in the treatment of pseudofolliculitis barbae in skin types V and VI.. Dermatol Surg 2005; 31 (3) 297-301 PubMed (PMID: 15841630)
  • 88 Valeriant M, Terracina FS, Mezzana P. Pseudofolliculitis of the neck and the shoulder: a new effective treatment with alexandrite laser.. Plast Reconstr Surg 2002; 110 (4) 1195-1196 PubMed (PMID: 12198448)
  • 89 Weaver III SM, Sagaral EC. Treatment of pseudofolliculitis barbae using the long-pulse Nd:YAG laser on skin types V and VI.. Dermatol Surg 2003; 29 (12) 1187-1191 PubMed (PMID: 14725660)
  • 90 Xia Y, Cho S, Howard RS, Maggio KL. Topical eflornithine hydrochloride improves the effectiveness of standard laser hair removal for treating pseudofolliculitis barbae: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.. J Am Acad Dermatol 2012; 67 (4) 694-699 PubMed (PMID: 22226431)
  • 91 Yamauchi PS, Kelly AP, Lask GP. Treatment of pseudofolliculitis barbae with the diode laser.. J Cutan Laser Ther 1999; 1 (2) 109-111 PubMed (PMID: 11357287)
  • 92 Esmat SM, Abdel Hay RM, Abu Zeid OM, Hosni HN. The efficacy of laser-assisted hair removal in the treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae; a pilot study.. Eur J Dermatol 2012; 22 (5) 645-650 PubMed (PMID: 23018044)
  • 93 Gamil HD, Khater EM, Khattab FM, Khalil MA. Successful treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae with erbium:YAG laser: a comparative study.. J Cosmet Laser Ther 2018; 20 (7–8) 419-423 PubMed (PMID: 29757041)
  • 94 Tawfik A, Osman MA, Rashwan I. A novel treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae by long-pulsed alexandrite laser.. Dermatol Surg 2018; 44 (3) 413-420 PubMed (PMID: 29016541)
  • 95 Umar S. Selection criteria and techniques for improved cosmesis and predictable outcomes in laser hair removal treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae.. JAAD Case Rep 2019; 5 (6) 529-534 PubMed (PMID: 31205997)
  • 96 Woo DK, Treyger G, Henderson M, Huggins RH, Jackson-Richards D, Hamzavi I. Prospective controlled trial for the treatment of acne keloidalis nuchae with a long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser.. J Cutan Med Surg 2018; 22 (2) 236-238 PubMed (PMID: 29587518)
  • 97 Krasner BD, Hamzavi FH, Murakawa GJ, Hamzavi IH. Dissecting cellulitis treated with the long-pulsed Nd:YAG laser.. Dermatol Surg 2006; 32 (8) 1039-1044 PubMed (PMID: 16918566)
  • 98 Boyd AS, Binhlam JQ. Use of an 800-nm pulsed-diode laser in the treatment of recalcitrant dissecting cellulitis of the scalp.. Arch Dermatol 2002; 138 (10) 1291-1293 PubMed (PMID: 12374532)
  • 99 Hamzavi IH, Griffith JL, Riyaz F, Hessam S, Bechara FG. Laser and light-based treatment options for hidradenitis suppurativa.. J Am Acad Dermatol 2015; 73 (5) (Suppl. Suppl 1) S78-S81 PubMed (PMID: 26470622)
  • 100 Badawi A, Kashmar M. Treatment of trichostasis spinulosa with 0.5-millisecond pulsed 755-nm alexandrite laser.. Lasers Med Sci 2011; 26 (6) 825-829 PubMed (PMID: 21842223)
  • 101 Alexis AF, Alam M. Racial and ethnic differences in skin aging: implications for treatment with soft tissue fillers.. J Drugs Dermatol 2012; 11 (8) s30-s32, discussion s32 PubMed (PMID: 22859226)
  • 102 Taylor SC, Burgess CM, Callender VD. Safety of nonanimal stabilized hyaluronic acid dermal fillers in patients with skin of color: a randomized, evaluator-blinded comparative trial.. Dermatol Surg 2009; 35 (Suppl. Suppl 2) 1653-1660 PubMed (PMID: 19807760)
  • 103 Taylor SC, Downie JB, Shamban A et al. Lip and perioral enhancement with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers in individuals with skin of color.. Dermatol Surg 2019; 45 (7) 959-967 PubMed (PMID: 30789512)
  • 104 Burgess C, Awosika O. Ethnic and gender considerations in the use of facial injectables: African-American patients.. Plast Reconstr Surg 2015; 136 (5) (Suppl. Suppl) 28S-31S PubMed (PMID: 26441107)
  • 105 Sundaram H, Signorini M, Liew S, et al. Global aesthetics consensus: botulinum toxin type a—evidence-based review, emerging concepts, and consensus recommendations for aesthetic use, including updates on complications.. Plast Reconstr Surg 2016; 137 (3) 518e-529e PubMed (PMID: 26910696)
  • 106 Sundaram H, Flynn T, Cassuto D, Lorenc ZP. New and emerging concepts in soft tissue fillers: roundtable discussion.. J Drugs Dermatol 2012; 11 (8) s12-s24, discussion s25 PubMed (PMID: 22859224)
  • 107 Liew S. Ethnic and gender considerations in the use of facial injectables: Asian patients.. Plast Reconstr Surg 2015; 136 (5) (Suppl. Suppl) 22S-27S PubMed (PMID: 26441103)
  • 108 Le TT, Farkas LG, Ngim RC, Levin LS, Forrest CR. Proportionality in Asian and North American Caucasian faces using neoclassical facial canons as criteria.. Aesthetic Plast Surg 2002; 26 (1) 64-69 PubMed (PMID: 11891603)
  • 109 Tamura BM, Odo MY, Chang B, Cucé LC, Flynn TC. Treatment of nasal wrinkles with botulinum toxin.. Dermatol Surg 2005; 31 (3) 271-275 PubMed (PMID: 15841625)
  • 111 Swee W, Klontz KC, Lambert LA. A nationwide outbreak of alopecia associated with the use of a hair-relaxing formulation.. Arch Dermatol 2000; 136 (9) 1104-1108 PubMed (PMID: 10987865)
  • 112 Mirmirani P, Khumalo NP. Traction alopecia: how to translate study data for public education: closing the KAP gap?. Dermatol Clin 2014; 32 (2) 153-161 PubMed (PMID: 24680002)
  • 113 Khumalo NP, Gumedze F. Traction: risk factor or coincidence in central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia?. Br J Dermatol 2012; 167 (5) 1191-1193 PubMed (PMID: 22578250)
  • 114 Samrao A, Price VH, Zedek D, Mirmirani P. The “Fringe Sign”: a useful clinical finding in traction alopecia of the marginal hair line.. Dermatol Online J 2011; 17 (11) 1 PubMed (PMID: 22136857)
  • 115 Samrao A, Chen C, Zedek D, Price VH. Traction alopecia in a ballerina: clinicopathologic features.. Arch Dermatol 2010; 146 (8) 930-931 PubMed (PMID: 20713841)
  • 116 Heath CR, Taylor SC. Alopecia in an ophiasis pattern: traction alopecia versus alopecia areata.. Cutis 2012; 89 (5) 213-216 PubMed (PMID: 22768432)
  • 117 James J, Saladi RN, Fox JL. Traction alopecia in Sikh male patients.. J Am Board Fam Med 2007; 20 (5) 497-498 PubMed (PMID: 17823469)
  • 118 Ozçelik D. Extensive traction alopecia attributable to ponytail hairstyle and its treatment with hair transplantation.. Aesthetic Plast Surg 2005; 29 (4) 325-327 PubMed (PMID: 16044234)
  • 119 Olsen EA, Callender V, McMichael A et al. Central hair loss in African American women: incidence and potential risk factors.. J Am Acad Dermatol 2011; 64 (2) 245-252 PubMed (PMID: 21075478)
  • 120 Miteva M, Tosti A. Dermoscopy guided scalp biopsy in cicatricial alopecia.. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2013; 27 (10) 1299-1303 PubMed (PMID: 22449222)
  • 121 Callender VD, Lawson CN, Onwudiwe OC. Hair transplantation in the surgical treatment of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia.. Dermatol Surg 2014; 40 (10) 1125-1131 PubMed (PMID: 25207763)
  • 122 Miteva M, Whiting D, Harries M, Bernardes A, Tosti A. Frontal fibrosing alopecia in black patients.. Br J Dermatol 2012; 167 (1) 208-210 PubMed (PMID: 22229387)
  • 123 Miteva M, Tosti A. The follicular triad: a pathological clue to the diagnosis of early frontal fibrosing alopecia.. Br J Dermatol 2012; 166 (2) 440-442 PubMed (PMID: 21787366)
  • 124 Moreno-Ramírez D, Ferrándiz L, Camacho FM. Diagnostic and therapeutic assessment of frontal fibrosing alopecia.. Actas Dermosifiliogr 2007; 98 (9) 594-602 PubMed (PMID: 17961448)
  • 125 Park JH, You SH, Kim N. Frontal hairline lowering with hair transplantation in Asian women with high foreheads.. Int J Dermatol 2019; 58 (3) 360-364 PubMed (PMID: 30675719)
  • 126 Epstein J, Bared A, Kuka G. Ethnic considerations in hair restoration surgery.. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2014; 22 (3) 427-437 PubMed (PMID: 25049126)
  • 127 Lam SM, Karamanovski E. Hair restoration in the ethnic patient and review of hair transplant fundamentals.. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2010; 18 (1) 35-42 PubMed (PMID: 20206088)